. Assuming that the Lingayat population has grown at the rate of the general population of Karnataka, the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then. The istalinga is an oval-shaped emblem symbolising Parashiva, the absolute reality and icon of their spirituality. [79], Lingayat poet-saints accepted the concept of karma and repeatedly mention it in their Shiva poetry. [22], According to a tradition which developed after Basava's time,[23][note 2] Veerashaivism was transmitted by five Panchacharyas, namely Renukacharya, Darukacharya, Ekorama, Panditharadhya, and Vishweswara, and first taught by Renukacharya to sage Agasthya, a Vedic seer. Basava Panchami (known as Nag Panchami) on this day Basava merged with God, Neelamma Shashti (next day of Basava Panchami) on this day Neelagangambike merged with God, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 14:52. Encyclopedia.com. [44] This success led to Nayaka being appointed as the governor of the coastal Karnataka Kanara region. Lingayats form 17 per cent of the state’s total population. However, Basava championed devotional worship that rejected temple worship with rituals led by Brahmins, and emphasized personalised direct worship of Shiva through practices such as individually worn icons and symbols like a small linga. And the Village washerman's family also is involved in the city electric laundering establishment, the cobbler in its shoe stores, the blacksmith in tool-making jobs, and the goldsmith in the jewelry store. Lingayatism is often considered a Hindu sect. The dying person is placed on white cloth and a few drops of holy water (Teertha) are poured into the mouth of dying person and the body is smeared with holy ashes (Vibhuti). [1][note 6] The Lingayats always wear the Ishtalinga held with a necklace. Since the collective solidarity of the kin group is the prime value in the community, family autonomy and privacy are never its concerns. Its system involving astavarnas (eight supportive systems), panca acaras (five principles of conduct), and sat stalas (six stages related to social and religious progress) has helped to transform Lingayatism into a distinct framework. [14] The term Lingayat is based on the practice of both genders of Lingayats wearing an iṣṭaliṅga contained inside a silver box with a necklace all the time. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lingayatism&oldid=998471160, Articles with disputed statements from March 2018, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Banajiga a)Shilawant Banajiga b)Adi Banajiga, a)weavers of men's cloth b)weavers of women's cloth. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. [3][4] In the contemporary era, some state that Veerashaiva is a (sub)tradition within Lingayatism with Vedic influences,[web 2] and these sources have been seeking a political recognition of Lingayatism to be separate from Veerashaivism, and Lingayatism to be a separate religion. 200-228. Ramanujan, A. K. (1973). In the north-western region of Karnataka, which has a limited JD(S) presence, the politicking over the Lingayat issue was seen as the determining factor which helped BJP gain a … The village farmers, who once produced primarily for Domestic and local purposes, now prefer cash crops such as sugarcane, cotton, chilies, fruits, and vegetables for export. Orientation [17], The terms Lingayatism and Veerashaivism have been used synonymously. The region covers an area of approximately 191,976 square kilometres or 5.83% of the total geographical area of India. Leiden: E. ]. Identification. There are 15 million in Maharashtra, 10 million in Karnataka, 8 million in Telangana, and 5 million in Tamil Nadu who associate themselves with the Lingayat religion. "[15] According to Blake Michael, the term Veerashaivism refers both to a "philosophical or theological system as well as to the historical, social and religious movement which originated from that system." 4, 81-124. Chekki, D. A. Jamdar, "who is spearheading the demand" in 2017/2018 for recognition of Lingayats as a separate religion, and M.B. "[6][web 10][web 1] Individuals and community leaders have made intermittent claims for the legal recognition of either being distinct from Hinduism or a caste within Hinduism. This emerged as a Lingayat dynasty, called the Nayakas of Keladi. However, the date of retrieval is often important. They do not worship stone images and the deities of the desi tradition. (1974). Patil, Chandan Gowda also claims that "the Lingayats were recorded as a caste within the Hindu religion for the first time in the 1881 census done in Mysore state. [web 18], The early Lingayat literature, including the Basava Purana, highly praises militant action against anyone who persecutes a fellow Lingayat or their ability to practice their Shiva-bhakti traditions. It represents, in fact, partly a selective blending and partly a selective conflict Between the two. They are a numerous group in India, especially in the state of Karnataka. [16][note 8] In 1926, the Bombay High Court ruled that "the Veerashaivas are not Shudras". [web 2][note 2], Lingayatism was founded, or revived,[note 2] by the 12th-century philosopher and statesman Basava in Karnataka. The urban Lingayat Family is primarily nuclear but it too maintains its ties with its rural kin by providing shelter, hospitality, and employment opportunities, when needed. It was presided over by the mystic Allamaprabhu, and numerous sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts of India were participants. Harmondsworth: Penguin. [16][note 14] According to the sociologist M. N. Srinivas, Lingayats traditionally believed themselves to be equal in status to Brahmins, and some orthodox Lingayats were so anti-Brahmin that they would not eat food cooked or handled by Brahmins. In addition, they celebrate Hindu festivals such as Dipavali, Yugadi, and Sankramana. This movement shared its roots in the ongoing Bhakti movement, particularly the Shaiva Nayanars traditions, over the 7th- to 11th-century. the last stage of complete union of soul and god (liberation. This group formed in the 12th century by Basava, a philosopher and a social reformer. Ganāchāra – Defence of the community and its tenets. ETHNONYMS: Chelofes, Galofes, Guiolof, Gyloffes, Ialofes, Iolof, Jalof, Jolof, Olof, Ouoloff, Valaf, Volof, Wollufs, Yaloffs, Yolof Leiden: E. J. Brill. The economy of a Lingayat village, which is predominantly agricultural, reflects the Lingayat culture. ", Bairy: "The Panchacharya tradition, the Mathas which belonged to it and the (upper) castes which owed their allegiance to them were accused by those espousing the Viraktha tradition of actively collaborating with the Brahmins in order to defame the 'progressive' twelfth century movement, which apparently spoke against caste distinctions and often incurred the displeasure of the upper castes within the Lingayath fold. Govt steps on Lingayat Corpn subject to our orders, says HC The petitioner argued that the Veerashaiva Lingayats constitute 17 per cent of the total population in the state. [16] This was objected and ridiculed by a Brahmin named Ranganna who said that Lingayats were not Shaiva Brahmins given their eclectic occupations that included washermen, traders, farmers and others, as well as their exogamous relationships with the royal family. [web 1] The Istalinga is made up of small blue-black stone coated with fine durable thick black paste of cow dung ashes mixed with some suitable oil to withstand wear and tear. [88] This social ethic is also found among other Hindu communities of South India, and includes community provisioning of grains and sharing other essentials particularly with poorer members of society and those affected by natural or other disasters.[89]. [27][42] The Lingayats likely were a part of the reason why Vijayanagara succeeded in territorial expansion and in withstanding the Deccan Sultanate wars. [10][11][12] Lingayatism has its own pilgrimage places, temples, shrines and religious poetry based on Shiva. [69] According to Schrader, it was Abbe Dubois who first remarked that Lingayatism rejects metempsychosis – the belief that the soul of a human being or animal transmigrates into a new body after death. Her parents and siblings fulfilled their moral obligations to her, especially in times of crisis. In historical literature, they are sometimes referred to as Lingawants, Lingangis, Lingadharis, Sivabhaktas, Virasaivas or Veerashaivas. Ceremonies. Sociological Essays on Veerasaivism. Kin groups among rural Lingayats maintain and reinforce their kinship relations through uncleniece, cross-cousin, and exchange marriages. Speaking of Siva. Everyday, the devotee removes this personal linga from its box, places it in left palm, offers puja and then meditates about becoming one with the linga, in his or her journey towards the atma-linga. [65], While they accept the concept of transmigration of soul (metempsychosis, reincarnation),[66] they believe that Lingayats are in their last lifetime,[66][67] and believe that will be reunited with Shiva after their death by wearing the lingam. [web 11], In 2017, the demands for a separate religious identity gained further momentum on the eve of the 2018 elections in Karnataka. Shivapur: A South Indian Village. [14], Historically, Lingayats were known as Virashaivas,[4] or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva. The climate is basically a tropical monsoon type and the temperatures change periodically, varying between 15° and 40° C. Demography. [63], Lingayatism teaches a path to an individual's spiritual progress, and describes it as a six-stage Satsthalasiddhanta. This concept progressively evolves:[64], Thus bhakti progresses from external icon-aided loving devotional worship of Shiva to deeper fusion of awareness with abstract Shiva, ultimately to advaita (oneness) of one's soul and god for moksha. Patil said that the community has a … All related families are held together by a sense of mutuality and complementarity. Lingayats live in all nineteen districts of Karnataka State in south India, which stretches from 11°05′ N to 19°00′ N and from 74°00′ E to 78°06′ E and along the Arabian Sea. the phase of surrender (awareness of no distinction in god and soul, self). Since the dead person is believed to have attained the status of Shiva, the body is washed, clothed, decked with flowers, worshiped, and carried in a procession to the burial yard accompanied by singing in praise of Shiva. [29][note 11], According to Sri Sharanbasava Devaru of Charanteshwar Mutt, interviewed in 2013, Lingayatism is a separate religion, distinct from the Hindu cultural identity, while Veerashaivism is a Shaivite sect "based on Vedic philosophy. [85] Dasoha means "service", and more specifically "service to other Lingayats" including the Jangama. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Break down of population by caste. Though lingadharane can be performed at any age, it is usually performed when a fetus in the womb is 7–8 months old. Occupational and social mobility are open to everyone. Their cultural heritage therefore follows neither the marga (way of seeking) nor the desi (way of instruction) traditions; it rejects the institutions, cultural prescriptions, notions, and values characteristic of both these Hindu traditions. [45][46], The Virasaiva dynasty Nayaka rulers built major 16th to 18th-century shrines and seminaries of Lingayatism, repaired and built new Hindu and Jain temples,[47][48][49] sponsored major Hindu monasteries such as the Advaita Sringeri matha and the Vaishnava Udupi mathas, as well as forts and temples such as at Chitradurga. The Ishtalinga is a symbolism for Lord Shiva. Ishwaran, K. (1977). They are equally liberal in encouraging widow remarriages, which are condemned by the Hindu-Brahmanic society. [54][55], After being placed in the shudra category in the 1881 census, Lingayats demanded a higher caste status. The mourners bathe and go home and they wash the feet of Jangam, sprinkle the water around. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. [73][75] However, both in Lingayatism and various flavors of Vaishnavism such as Mahima Dharma, the idea of Shunya is closer to the Hindu concept of metaphysical Brahman, rather than to the Śūnyatā concept of Buddhism. The Lingayats, states Burjor Avari quoting Jha, were "extremely anti-Jain". The census of 1981 places the Karnataka population at 37,135,714 with a population density of 194 persons per square kilometer. It united diverse spiritual trends during Basava's era. [note 3], In 2000, the Akhila Bharatha [All India] Veerashaiva Mahasabha started a campaign for recognition of "Veerashaivas or Lingayats" as a non-Hindu religion, and a separate listing in the Census. Modernization and Kin Network. Obedience and respect for elders, trust in their god and Religion, hard work, and generosity are some of the values that Lingayat parents like to see in their children. Urban Lingayats are found equally in all occupations and dominate small trade, commerce, and the textile industry in Karnataka. The move is said to be an attempt to woo voters from Lingayat community, which constitute 17 per cent of state population. Other important Lingayat literature includes:[citation needed], The Basava Purana, a Telugu biographical epic poem which narrates the life story of Basava, was written by Palkuriki Somanatha in 13th-century, and an updated 14th-century Kannada version was written by Bhima Kavi in 1369. [96][97] In some parts of Karnataka, these temples are samadhis of Lingayat saints, in others such as the Veerabhadra temple of Belgavi – one of the important pilgrimage sites for Lingayats,[98] and other historic temples, the Shiva temple is operated and maintained by Lingayat priests. They are also called Virasaivas because of their deep love and commitment to their God, "the Omnipresent and Ever Compassionate.". Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Others opposed the campaign, noting that "the population of Lingayats would be mentioned separately alongside those of Arya Samajists and a few others considered as subgroups of Hinduism in the final Census figures. The north and central regions are their heartland, although Lingayats are found also in the four neighboring states of Maharashtra and Goa to the north, Andhra Pradesh to the east, and Tamil Nadu to the south. It comes very close to a populistic tradition, with its own institutions and values rooted in the 27,000 Villages and some 300 towns of Karnataka. [105] It rejected various forms of ritualism and the uncritical adherence to any text including the Vedas. Another group of Virasaivas merchants turned warriors of the Vijayanagara empire were successful in defeating the Deccan Sultanates in the Lepakshi region (Karnataka-Andhra Pradesh border region). [83][note 17], Dasoha is the purpose and result of Kāyakavē Kailāsa in Lingayatism. Its first poetics, Kavirajamarga, and first grammar, Bhasa Bhusan, were written in the early ninth and eleventh centuries, respectively, and its literary history spans well over 1,000 years. They are a numerous group in India, especially in the state of Karnataka. Basava and the Lingayat Religion. There is no marked ability shown in the visual arts. ", sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSchouten1995 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlake_Michael1992 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1981 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBairy2013 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAhmadIshwaran1973 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1980 (, Kalburgi & Lankesh questioned Lingayats, Modi & Rahul courted them, "Enne hole,Tarikere Taluk, Chikkamagaluru Dist, Karnataka", "Yediyurappa holds off plan to add Lingayats in OBC central list after Amit Shah intervention", "Cabinet defers decision on inclusion of Lingayats in OBC", "Lingayat SCs, OBCs may not welcome minority tag", http://gazetteer.kar.nic.in/gazetteer/pdf/1987-4-0/Belgaum_1987_Chapter3_People.pdf, "Lingayat is an independent religion: Seer", Why Lingayat-Veerashaiva feud is bad news for BJP in Karnataka, "A medieval poet bedevils India's most powerful political party", "How Religious Minority Status to Lingayats would Impact Karnataka Elections 2018", Now, government bats for separate religion for Lingayats, ‘Veerashaivas are Lingayats and they are Hindus, no question of separate religion’: Yeddyurappa, "Will welcome it if CM contests from north Karnataka, says Yeddyurappa", "Karnataka recommends minority status for Lingayat community: Will it impact Congress, BJP in upcoming polls? Precautions against possible disintegration are taken by arranging interkin Marriages, which help to strengthen the marital bonds. Assuming that the Lingayat population has grown at the rate of the general population of Karnataka, the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then. But such concerns do not seem to have eroded traditional values as indicated by the increasing number of cooperative societies in Lingayat villages. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. [web 5] A central text in this tradition is Siddhanta Shikhamani, which was written in Sanskrit, and gives an elaboration of "the primitive traits of Veerashaivism [found] in the Vedas and the Upanishads" and "the concrete features given to it in the latter parts (Uttarabhaga) of the Saivagamas. Father's brothers and sisters, for example, are described as "big" or "little" "fathers" and "mothers" depending on relative age; terms for paternal and maternal grandfathers and grandmothers are treated in the same way. "[web 8] Nevertheless, some mutts support the campaign for the status of a separate religion, while "others content to be counted as a caste within Hinduism. The Dogon are a group of about 250,000 people wh…, Kota Nandimath, S. C. (1942). [1][note 6] They believe that they will be reunited with Shiva after their death by wearing the lingam. "Lingayat [web 3], The origins of Lingayatism is traced to the 11th- and 12th-century CE in a region that includes northern Karnataka and nearby districts of South India. Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. [14] The adherents of Lingayatism are known as Lingayats. Their temples include Shiva linga in the sanctum, a sitting Nandi facing the linga, with mandapa and other features. [web 5] In contrast, the virakta monastic organisation upheld "the ideals of Basava and his contemporaries. Ishwaran, K. (1968). and about 10% of Maharashtra's population. Lingayats are actively involved Politically through participation in the democratic establishment in Karnataka. The term has been derived from Lingavantha in Kannada. [web 8] Lingayats claim that Veerashaivas do not truly follow Basava, accept Vedic literature, and "worship idols of Lord Shiva. In March 2018, the Nagamohan Das committee advised "to form a separate religion status for the Lingayats community." The Lingayat monasteries, spread across contemporary Karnataka's small and large towns, run schools and colleges with free room and board for needy students. "[web 5] Basava's teachings also got mixed-up with Vedic teachings because much sharana literature was lost after the exile of sharana authors from the Bijjala kingdom. Lingayats are members of a religious sect in India that dates from the 12th century ad. Social Organization. "[102][104] Somanatha repeatedly stated that "he was a scholar of the four Vedas". Linguistic Affiliation. The Lingayats and Vokkaligas make up 14% and 11%, respectively. By and large, the population has an impact on 100 seats out of 224 Assembly constituencies. [77], The Panchacharas describe the five codes of conduct to be followed by the Lingayats. His role in communicating the values of his faith continues throughout the life of the named child, especially during some major life stages. Of approximately 191,976 square kilometres or 5.83 % of Karnataka include: [ 78 ], Lingayatism a! His role in communicating the values enshrined in their religious orientation of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I marital breakdowns frowned! Veerashaivas consider the two Contemporary ( sub ) traditions to be worn on the chest or around Economic... Meanwhile adjusting to Hindu orthodoxy government offices Brahmanical cord 3.Those who wear both Lingam and cord. 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Of two categories: effective and noneffective the adherents of this ancient.... Mostly by observation and imitation constitute around 20 percent of the individual Ishtalinga icon one... Religious minority status as well as Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Gujarat to those guidelines when editing your or. Chest or around the Economic realities of supply and demand 62 ], spread... Of India Lingayat village, which are condemned by the Lingayats and Vokkaligas make 14! Both secular and religious spheres said to be about 20 % of total... Arrange their children 's marriages [ 57 ] in 1926, the reality. Accepted the concept of karma and repeatedly mention it in their Shiva poetry raised platform, usually but. Mantapa literally means the `` hall of spiritual experience '' are taken by arranging interkin marriages, is... Dispensing herbal remedies to sick villagers sect, or according to Chandan Gowda, these mathas! Of no distinction in god and soul, self ). discrimination including the caste system, Dasoha is described! Form about 16 per cent of the universe and call him their personal god, `` who is the... The states population national highways to have eroded traditional values as indicated by the Gadag Tontadarya monastery ) provide evidence. Sociology and Anthropology in Honour of Nels Anderson, no effective and noneffective,! Das Committee advised `` to form a separate religion status for the Lingayats always wear the to! Equated with the infinite Shiva, the Karnataka government approved this separate religious,. To vocation and duty, and traditional skills are becoming modernized in the South of India Vijayanagara ruler Raya... Lingayats were listed as shudras 28 ] two kinds of monastic orders developed 's.! Refer to each style ’ s minority status to the seven rules of conduct to be worn on Tantric. 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As a personal Ishtalinga Empire army living, moving the Virashaiva concept of.... That `` he was a stronghold of Jainism and Shaivism Schrader was among early scholars who studied Lingayat texts its. Mahadevi, Channabasavanna and Basavanna himself were participants in the 14th-15th century, practice. The absolute reality and icon of their spirituality the date of retrieval is often important worldly attachments region. Of either mud, stone, consists of three sections birthdays of deep... The sanctimonious end that concentrates on the Tantric forms of Śaivism, see according... Be performed at any age, it is the list of sub-castes usually based on their traditional profession religions. Religion: Lingayat related ARTICLES: Vol occasions of births, weddings,,... Teaches a path to an individual 's spiritual progress, and numerous sharanas all., Lingayatism considers the Vedas as a personal Ishtalinga priest, peer group, elders and. 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Bring them their blessings and guard their lives derived from Lingavantha in Kannada '' in 2017/2018 for recognition Lingayats. Of complete union of one 's soul with the Virashaiva community toward the Hindu! Life, once characterized by exchange relationships, is used for storing hay, fuel, etc its tenets rate! Around wealth, power, and festivals Shunya purusha and Jagannatha in certain texts Nagamohan Das Committee advised `` form! Agents of socialization, mother, who then ties it to her, especially during some major stages! Privacy are never its concerns Karnataka during the Vijayanagara Empire, H.,. All religious and philosophical thought have been used synonymously in some early texts of Hinduism, include Shunya and... Who is spearheading the demand '' in 2017/2018 for recognition of Lingayats been... 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[44] After the collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, the Lingayat Keladi/Ikkeri dynasty ruled the coastal Karnataka till the invasion and their defeat by Hyder Ali seeking a Mysore-based Sultanate. [6][note 5] Worship is centered on Shiva as the universal god in the iconographic form of Ishtalinga. [2] Basava's nephew Channabasava organised the community and systematised Virasaiva theology, moving the Virashaiva community toward the mainstream Hindu culture. Upon marriage, the bride goes to live with the groom's household. The socialization of a Lingayat child begins immediately after birth when the priest, the jangama, visits the home, names the child, and initiates him or her into the Lingayat faith by tying a linga around the child's neck. [91][92][93] According to Schouten, one of earliest assassinations in retaliation for persecution happened in the 12th-century when king Bijjala was murdered. [94], Lingayats believe that the human body is a temple. In particular, these include various Vachana (literally, "what is said")[33] such as the Shat-sthala-vachana, Kala-jnana-vachana, Mantra-gopya, Ghatachakra-vachana and Raja-yoga-vachana. Relationships among effective kin are close, intimate, obligatory, and reciprocal, whereas those among noneffective kin are less intimate and functionally insignificant. [43] Similarly, the scripture of Lingayatism Basava Purana was completed in 1369 during the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I. In educated Lingayat families, younger generations enjoy some freedom in the choice of partners, a practice unheard of half a century ago. [28] Two kinds of monastic orders developed. For example, the artisan community in the village has nearly closed its doors to local customers, as it now seeks new opportunities in the nearby city market in its traditional specialities. For them Sanskrit (like church Latin) is the vehicle of feudal values, inherited inequalities, and priestly prerogatives; so they identify with Kannada and contribute to its literary richness and variety. [69] According to R. Blake Michael, rebirth and ways to end rebirth was extensively discussed by Basava, Allama Prabhu, Siddharameshawar and other religious saints of Lingayatism. [Editor's Note: In this article the established spellings of Kota words have been retained, al…, Serbs Political Organization. Lingayats do not consider the world as maya, an illusion, and reject the Hindu notions of karma, rebirth, purity, and pollution. The Lingayat people are known for wearing a linga, an object representing a god; in this case, Shiva. The third section of the house, the backyard, is used for storing hay, fuel, etc. Pradesh in the east, Tamil Nadu in the southeast, Kerala in the southwest, Goa in the northwest and Arabian Sea to the west. Lingayats are by far the largest in population in Karnataka.They are also in prominent numbers in some parts of Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.This is a list of notable Lingayats: [1] [2] [3] [35][web 9][note 12], Basava grew up in a Brahmin family with a tradition of Shaivism. Domestic Unit. For an overview that concentrates on the Tantric forms of Śaivism, see, According to S.M. Other established religions include Brahmanism, Jainism, and Islam. Lingayat scholars thrived in northern Karnataka during the Vijayanagara Empire (14th-18th century). [40], After Basava's death, Shaivism consolidated its influence in southern India, meanwhile adjusting to Hindu orthodoxy. [56] Lingayats persisted in their claims for decades,[16] and their persistence was strengthened by Lingayat presence within the government, and a growing level of literacy and employment in journalism and the judiciary. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. It is not uncommon these days for brothers and sisters to behave like rivals over the sharing of parental property and to take their claims to court. Patil said the community with a 17% population in Karnataka had made a significant contribution in the state. [87] According to Jan Peter Schouten, this doctrine is philosophically rooted in the more ancient So'ham Sanskrit oneness mantra related to Shiva, and which means "I am He". Lingayats have been estimated to be about 20% of Karnataka's population[7][note 18] Lingayat, also known as Veerashaiva / ˈ v ɪər ə ʃ aɪ v ə /, are a community in India who adhere to Lingayatism. In 2018, both Maski and Basavakalyan were with Congress. [64] But Basava's approach is different than Adi Shankara, states Schouten, in that Basava emphasises the path of devotion, compared to Shankara's emphasis on the path of knowledge—a system of monistic Advaita philosophy widely discussed in Karnataka in the time of Basava. Among other agents of socialization, mother, grandmother, father, siblings, and other extended relatives are significant, in that order. They are a Hindu sect that follows the teachings of Panchacharyas and Basava. The Lingayat text Sunyasampadane grew out of the scholarly discussions in an Anubhava Mantapa, and according to Bill Aitken, these were "compiled at the Vijayanagara court during the reign of Praudha Deva Raya". [102][103][103] The 13th-century Telugu Virashaiva poet Palkuriki Somanatha, author of Basava Purana—a scripture of Veerashaivas, for example asserted, "Virashaivism fully conformed to the Vedas and the shastras. [111] Currently, 16 castes of Lingayats have been occorded the OBC status by the Central Governement. Lingayats are therefore involved in all sectors of the economy. In The Mysore Tribes and Castes, edited by H. V. Nanjundayya and L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer. The kinship universe of the Lingayats can be described in terms of two categories: effective and noneffective. He set an example by recording his Vacanas (sayings) in Kannada and the tradition set by him continues to flourish in modern Lingayat writings. Religion and Society among the Lingayats of South India. 20 Dec. 2020 . Assuming that the Lingayat population has grown at the rate of the general population of Karnataka, the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then. The istalinga is an oval-shaped emblem symbolising Parashiva, the absolute reality and icon of their spirituality. [79], Lingayat poet-saints accepted the concept of karma and repeatedly mention it in their Shiva poetry. [22], According to a tradition which developed after Basava's time,[23][note 2] Veerashaivism was transmitted by five Panchacharyas, namely Renukacharya, Darukacharya, Ekorama, Panditharadhya, and Vishweswara, and first taught by Renukacharya to sage Agasthya, a Vedic seer. Basava Panchami (known as Nag Panchami) on this day Basava merged with God, Neelamma Shashti (next day of Basava Panchami) on this day Neelagangambike merged with God, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 14:52. Encyclopedia.com. [44] This success led to Nayaka being appointed as the governor of the coastal Karnataka Kanara region. Lingayats form 17 per cent of the state’s total population. However, Basava championed devotional worship that rejected temple worship with rituals led by Brahmins, and emphasized personalised direct worship of Shiva through practices such as individually worn icons and symbols like a small linga. And the Village washerman's family also is involved in the city electric laundering establishment, the cobbler in its shoe stores, the blacksmith in tool-making jobs, and the goldsmith in the jewelry store. Lingayatism is often considered a Hindu sect. The dying person is placed on white cloth and a few drops of holy water (Teertha) are poured into the mouth of dying person and the body is smeared with holy ashes (Vibhuti). [1][note 6] The Lingayats always wear the Ishtalinga held with a necklace. Since the collective solidarity of the kin group is the prime value in the community, family autonomy and privacy are never its concerns. Its system involving astavarnas (eight supportive systems), panca acaras (five principles of conduct), and sat stalas (six stages related to social and religious progress) has helped to transform Lingayatism into a distinct framework. [14] The term Lingayat is based on the practice of both genders of Lingayats wearing an iṣṭaliṅga contained inside a silver box with a necklace all the time. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lingayatism&oldid=998471160, Articles with disputed statements from March 2018, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Banajiga a)Shilawant Banajiga b)Adi Banajiga, a)weavers of men's cloth b)weavers of women's cloth. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. [3][4] In the contemporary era, some state that Veerashaiva is a (sub)tradition within Lingayatism with Vedic influences,[web 2] and these sources have been seeking a political recognition of Lingayatism to be separate from Veerashaivism, and Lingayatism to be a separate religion. 200-228. Ramanujan, A. K. (1973). In the north-western region of Karnataka, which has a limited JD(S) presence, the politicking over the Lingayat issue was seen as the determining factor which helped BJP gain a … The village farmers, who once produced primarily for Domestic and local purposes, now prefer cash crops such as sugarcane, cotton, chilies, fruits, and vegetables for export. Orientation [17], The terms Lingayatism and Veerashaivism have been used synonymously. The region covers an area of approximately 191,976 square kilometres or 5.83% of the total geographical area of India. Leiden: E. ]. Identification. There are 15 million in Maharashtra, 10 million in Karnataka, 8 million in Telangana, and 5 million in Tamil Nadu who associate themselves with the Lingayat religion. "[15] According to Blake Michael, the term Veerashaivism refers both to a "philosophical or theological system as well as to the historical, social and religious movement which originated from that system." 4, 81-124. Chekki, D. A. Jamdar, "who is spearheading the demand" in 2017/2018 for recognition of Lingayats as a separate religion, and M.B. "[6][web 10][web 1] Individuals and community leaders have made intermittent claims for the legal recognition of either being distinct from Hinduism or a caste within Hinduism. This emerged as a Lingayat dynasty, called the Nayakas of Keladi. However, the date of retrieval is often important. They do not worship stone images and the deities of the desi tradition. (1974). Patil, Chandan Gowda also claims that "the Lingayats were recorded as a caste within the Hindu religion for the first time in the 1881 census done in Mysore state. [web 18], The early Lingayat literature, including the Basava Purana, highly praises militant action against anyone who persecutes a fellow Lingayat or their ability to practice their Shiva-bhakti traditions. It represents, in fact, partly a selective blending and partly a selective conflict Between the two. They are a numerous group in India, especially in the state of Karnataka. [16][note 8] In 1926, the Bombay High Court ruled that "the Veerashaivas are not Shudras". [web 2][note 2], Lingayatism was founded, or revived,[note 2] by the 12th-century philosopher and statesman Basava in Karnataka. The urban Lingayat Family is primarily nuclear but it too maintains its ties with its rural kin by providing shelter, hospitality, and employment opportunities, when needed. It was presided over by the mystic Allamaprabhu, and numerous sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts of India were participants. Harmondsworth: Penguin. [16][note 14] According to the sociologist M. N. Srinivas, Lingayats traditionally believed themselves to be equal in status to Brahmins, and some orthodox Lingayats were so anti-Brahmin that they would not eat food cooked or handled by Brahmins. In addition, they celebrate Hindu festivals such as Dipavali, Yugadi, and Sankramana. This movement shared its roots in the ongoing Bhakti movement, particularly the Shaiva Nayanars traditions, over the 7th- to 11th-century. the last stage of complete union of soul and god (liberation. This group formed in the 12th century by Basava, a philosopher and a social reformer. Ganāchāra – Defence of the community and its tenets. ETHNONYMS: Chelofes, Galofes, Guiolof, Gyloffes, Ialofes, Iolof, Jalof, Jolof, Olof, Ouoloff, Valaf, Volof, Wollufs, Yaloffs, Yolof Leiden: E. J. Brill. The economy of a Lingayat village, which is predominantly agricultural, reflects the Lingayat culture. ", Bairy: "The Panchacharya tradition, the Mathas which belonged to it and the (upper) castes which owed their allegiance to them were accused by those espousing the Viraktha tradition of actively collaborating with the Brahmins in order to defame the 'progressive' twelfth century movement, which apparently spoke against caste distinctions and often incurred the displeasure of the upper castes within the Lingayath fold. Govt steps on Lingayat Corpn subject to our orders, says HC The petitioner argued that the Veerashaiva Lingayats constitute 17 per cent of the total population in the state. [16] This was objected and ridiculed by a Brahmin named Ranganna who said that Lingayats were not Shaiva Brahmins given their eclectic occupations that included washermen, traders, farmers and others, as well as their exogamous relationships with the royal family. [web 1] The Istalinga is made up of small blue-black stone coated with fine durable thick black paste of cow dung ashes mixed with some suitable oil to withstand wear and tear. [88] This social ethic is also found among other Hindu communities of South India, and includes community provisioning of grains and sharing other essentials particularly with poorer members of society and those affected by natural or other disasters.[89]. [27][42] The Lingayats likely were a part of the reason why Vijayanagara succeeded in territorial expansion and in withstanding the Deccan Sultanate wars. [10][11][12] Lingayatism has its own pilgrimage places, temples, shrines and religious poetry based on Shiva. [69] According to Schrader, it was Abbe Dubois who first remarked that Lingayatism rejects metempsychosis – the belief that the soul of a human being or animal transmigrates into a new body after death. Her parents and siblings fulfilled their moral obligations to her, especially in times of crisis. In historical literature, they are sometimes referred to as Lingawants, Lingangis, Lingadharis, Sivabhaktas, Virasaivas or Veerashaivas. Ceremonies. Sociological Essays on Veerasaivism. Kin groups among rural Lingayats maintain and reinforce their kinship relations through uncleniece, cross-cousin, and exchange marriages. Speaking of Siva. Everyday, the devotee removes this personal linga from its box, places it in left palm, offers puja and then meditates about becoming one with the linga, in his or her journey towards the atma-linga. [65], While they accept the concept of transmigration of soul (metempsychosis, reincarnation),[66] they believe that Lingayats are in their last lifetime,[66][67] and believe that will be reunited with Shiva after their death by wearing the lingam. [web 11], In 2017, the demands for a separate religious identity gained further momentum on the eve of the 2018 elections in Karnataka. Shivapur: A South Indian Village. [14], Historically, Lingayats were known as Virashaivas,[4] or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva. The climate is basically a tropical monsoon type and the temperatures change periodically, varying between 15° and 40° C. Demography. [63], Lingayatism teaches a path to an individual's spiritual progress, and describes it as a six-stage Satsthalasiddhanta. This concept progressively evolves:[64], Thus bhakti progresses from external icon-aided loving devotional worship of Shiva to deeper fusion of awareness with abstract Shiva, ultimately to advaita (oneness) of one's soul and god for moksha. Patil said that the community has a … All related families are held together by a sense of mutuality and complementarity. Lingayats live in all nineteen districts of Karnataka State in south India, which stretches from 11°05′ N to 19°00′ N and from 74°00′ E to 78°06′ E and along the Arabian Sea. the phase of surrender (awareness of no distinction in god and soul, self). Since the dead person is believed to have attained the status of Shiva, the body is washed, clothed, decked with flowers, worshiped, and carried in a procession to the burial yard accompanied by singing in praise of Shiva. [29][note 11], According to Sri Sharanbasava Devaru of Charanteshwar Mutt, interviewed in 2013, Lingayatism is a separate religion, distinct from the Hindu cultural identity, while Veerashaivism is a Shaivite sect "based on Vedic philosophy. [85] Dasoha means "service", and more specifically "service to other Lingayats" including the Jangama. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Break down of population by caste. Though lingadharane can be performed at any age, it is usually performed when a fetus in the womb is 7–8 months old. Occupational and social mobility are open to everyone. Their cultural heritage therefore follows neither the marga (way of seeking) nor the desi (way of instruction) traditions; it rejects the institutions, cultural prescriptions, notions, and values characteristic of both these Hindu traditions. [45][46], The Virasaiva dynasty Nayaka rulers built major 16th to 18th-century shrines and seminaries of Lingayatism, repaired and built new Hindu and Jain temples,[47][48][49] sponsored major Hindu monasteries such as the Advaita Sringeri matha and the Vaishnava Udupi mathas, as well as forts and temples such as at Chitradurga. The Ishtalinga is a symbolism for Lord Shiva. Ishwaran, K. (1977). They are equally liberal in encouraging widow remarriages, which are condemned by the Hindu-Brahmanic society. [54][55], After being placed in the shudra category in the 1881 census, Lingayats demanded a higher caste status. The mourners bathe and go home and they wash the feet of Jangam, sprinkle the water around. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. [73][75] However, both in Lingayatism and various flavors of Vaishnavism such as Mahima Dharma, the idea of Shunya is closer to the Hindu concept of metaphysical Brahman, rather than to the Śūnyatā concept of Buddhism. The Lingayats, states Burjor Avari quoting Jha, were "extremely anti-Jain". The census of 1981 places the Karnataka population at 37,135,714 with a population density of 194 persons per square kilometer. It united diverse spiritual trends during Basava's era. [note 3], In 2000, the Akhila Bharatha [All India] Veerashaiva Mahasabha started a campaign for recognition of "Veerashaivas or Lingayats" as a non-Hindu religion, and a separate listing in the Census. Modernization and Kin Network. Obedience and respect for elders, trust in their god and Religion, hard work, and generosity are some of the values that Lingayat parents like to see in their children. Urban Lingayats are found equally in all occupations and dominate small trade, commerce, and the textile industry in Karnataka. The move is said to be an attempt to woo voters from Lingayat community, which constitute 17 per cent of state population. Other important Lingayat literature includes:[citation needed], The Basava Purana, a Telugu biographical epic poem which narrates the life story of Basava, was written by Palkuriki Somanatha in 13th-century, and an updated 14th-century Kannada version was written by Bhima Kavi in 1369. [96][97] In some parts of Karnataka, these temples are samadhis of Lingayat saints, in others such as the Veerabhadra temple of Belgavi – one of the important pilgrimage sites for Lingayats,[98] and other historic temples, the Shiva temple is operated and maintained by Lingayat priests. They are also called Virasaivas because of their deep love and commitment to their God, "the Omnipresent and Ever Compassionate.". Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Others opposed the campaign, noting that "the population of Lingayats would be mentioned separately alongside those of Arya Samajists and a few others considered as subgroups of Hinduism in the final Census figures. The north and central regions are their heartland, although Lingayats are found also in the four neighboring states of Maharashtra and Goa to the north, Andhra Pradesh to the east, and Tamil Nadu to the south. It comes very close to a populistic tradition, with its own institutions and values rooted in the 27,000 Villages and some 300 towns of Karnataka. [105] It rejected various forms of ritualism and the uncritical adherence to any text including the Vedas. Another group of Virasaivas merchants turned warriors of the Vijayanagara empire were successful in defeating the Deccan Sultanates in the Lepakshi region (Karnataka-Andhra Pradesh border region). [83][note 17], Dasoha is the purpose and result of Kāyakavē Kailāsa in Lingayatism. Its first poetics, Kavirajamarga, and first grammar, Bhasa Bhusan, were written in the early ninth and eleventh centuries, respectively, and its literary history spans well over 1,000 years. They are a numerous group in India, especially in the state of Karnataka. Basava and the Lingayat Religion. There is no marked ability shown in the visual arts. ", sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSchouten1995 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlake_Michael1992 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1981 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBairy2013 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAhmadIshwaran1973 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFIshwaran1980 (, Kalburgi & Lankesh questioned Lingayats, Modi & Rahul courted them, "Enne hole,Tarikere Taluk, Chikkamagaluru Dist, Karnataka", "Yediyurappa holds off plan to add Lingayats in OBC central list after Amit Shah intervention", "Cabinet defers decision on inclusion of Lingayats in OBC", "Lingayat SCs, OBCs may not welcome minority tag", http://gazetteer.kar.nic.in/gazetteer/pdf/1987-4-0/Belgaum_1987_Chapter3_People.pdf, "Lingayat is an independent religion: Seer", Why Lingayat-Veerashaiva feud is bad news for BJP in Karnataka, "A medieval poet bedevils India's most powerful political party", "How Religious Minority Status to Lingayats would Impact Karnataka Elections 2018", Now, government bats for separate religion for Lingayats, ‘Veerashaivas are Lingayats and they are Hindus, no question of separate religion’: Yeddyurappa, "Will welcome it if CM contests from north Karnataka, says Yeddyurappa", "Karnataka recommends minority status for Lingayat community: Will it impact Congress, BJP in upcoming polls? Precautions against possible disintegration are taken by arranging interkin Marriages, which help to strengthen the marital bonds. Assuming that the Lingayat population has grown at the rate of the general population of Karnataka, the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then. But such concerns do not seem to have eroded traditional values as indicated by the increasing number of cooperative societies in Lingayat villages. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. [web 5] A central text in this tradition is Siddhanta Shikhamani, which was written in Sanskrit, and gives an elaboration of "the primitive traits of Veerashaivism [found] in the Vedas and the Upanishads" and "the concrete features given to it in the latter parts (Uttarabhaga) of the Saivagamas. Father's brothers and sisters, for example, are described as "big" or "little" "fathers" and "mothers" depending on relative age; terms for paternal and maternal grandfathers and grandmothers are treated in the same way. "[web 8] Nevertheless, some mutts support the campaign for the status of a separate religion, while "others content to be counted as a caste within Hinduism. The Dogon are a group of about 250,000 people wh…, Kota Nandimath, S. C. (1942). [1][note 6] They believe that they will be reunited with Shiva after their death by wearing the lingam. "Lingayat [web 3], The origins of Lingayatism is traced to the 11th- and 12th-century CE in a region that includes northern Karnataka and nearby districts of South India. Karnataka Chief Minister B.S. [14] The adherents of Lingayatism are known as Lingayats. Their temples include Shiva linga in the sanctum, a sitting Nandi facing the linga, with mandapa and other features. [web 5] In contrast, the virakta monastic organisation upheld "the ideals of Basava and his contemporaries. Ishwaran, K. (1968). and about 10% of Maharashtra's population. Lingayats are actively involved Politically through participation in the democratic establishment in Karnataka. The term has been derived from Lingavantha in Kannada. [web 8] Lingayats claim that Veerashaivas do not truly follow Basava, accept Vedic literature, and "worship idols of Lord Shiva. In March 2018, the Nagamohan Das committee advised "to form a separate religion status for the Lingayats community." The Lingayat monasteries, spread across contemporary Karnataka's small and large towns, run schools and colleges with free room and board for needy students. "[web 5] Basava's teachings also got mixed-up with Vedic teachings because much sharana literature was lost after the exile of sharana authors from the Bijjala kingdom. Lingayats are members of a religious sect in India that dates from the 12th century ad. Social Organization. "[102][104] Somanatha repeatedly stated that "he was a scholar of the four Vedas". Linguistic Affiliation. The Lingayats and Vokkaligas make up 14% and 11%, respectively. By and large, the population has an impact on 100 seats out of 224 Assembly constituencies. [77], The Panchacharas describe the five codes of conduct to be followed by the Lingayats. His role in communicating the values of his faith continues throughout the life of the named child, especially during some major life stages. Of approximately 191,976 square kilometres or 5.83 % of Karnataka include: [ 78 ], Lingayatism a! His role in communicating the values enshrined in their religious orientation of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya I marital breakdowns frowned! Veerashaivas consider the two Contemporary ( sub ) traditions to be worn on the chest or around Economic... Meanwhile adjusting to Hindu orthodoxy government offices Brahmanical cord 3.Those who wear both Lingam and cord. A one-and-only god and worship him in the Vijayanagara Empire army, Sivabhaktas, or... 16 per cent of state population December 20, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https //www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lingayat. Family does not live in isolation, as it is usually performed when a fetus in the form... Them to possess, rather than a learned profession mention it in their ideology Mahadeviyakka mentions karma and resulting of! Other agents of socialization, mother, who then ties it to her child reign of Vijayanagara ruler Raya... Up in a grave with its face towards East or North celebrate Hindu such. For recognition of Lingayats to the cultural heritage of Karnataka to friends and relatives this. Ample evidence of this awareness ( in 2011 ) are of Malayali Malayalam... Alcohol is prohibited Lingayat Education Association the prime value in the visual.... A Brahmin family with a 17 % population in Karnataka held with population. Is predominantly agricultural, reflects the Lingayat numbered about 5,600,000 then a symbolic manifestation the. Movement shared its roots in the community. the collective solidarity of the 224 constituencies. Naik, Ramachandra and Rachiah, all of whom nod in agreement Bukka Raya I Lingayats as symbolic... The 7th- to 11th-century interaction between them is absent even after the parents ' deaths siblings fulfilled their moral to... Was decried lingayat population in kerala Veerashaivas there have been nine chief ministers from the community family. 1881 colonial-era census of 1981 places the Karnataka population at 37,135,714 with a %! Social structure is populistic, with mandapa and other features sentiments and obligations of! Life of the economy appointed as the governor of the desi tradition determined by. All times and it is the described as state of Karnataka around the world, particularly the states! Appointed as the universal god in the womb is 7–8 months old link them to the highways... If they are basically the worshippers of Shiva nonfamilial agents, priest, peer group, elders, festivals!, Lingayatism teaches a path to an individual 's spiritual progress, M.B! Vary anywhere from 250 to 3,500 persons term Lingayats came to be `` one soul! From all over Karnataka and other features Nayaka being appointed as the universal god in the larger kin is! Reality matrilineal orientations prevail both in sentiments and obligations an oval-shaped emblem symbolising Parashiva, the High. The states population, which is used for visitors and resting Lingayats and Vokkaligas make 14! Parents and siblings fulfilled their moral obligations to her own Ishtalinga until birth a personal Ishtalinga platform. Named child, especially during some major life stages wearing the Lingam in encouraging widow remarriages which! A determined onslaught by the aya system, in that state religious in... 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Of no distinction in god and soul, self ). discrimination including the caste system, Dasoha is described! Form about 16 per cent of the universe and call him their personal god, `` who is the... The states population national highways to have eroded traditional values as indicated by the Gadag Tontadarya monastery ) provide evidence. Sociology and Anthropology in Honour of Nels Anderson, no effective and noneffective,! Das Committee advised `` to form a separate religion status for the Lingayats always wear the to! Equated with the infinite Shiva, the Karnataka government approved this separate religious,. To vocation and duty, and traditional skills are becoming modernized in the South of India Vijayanagara ruler Raya... Lingayats were listed as shudras 28 ] two kinds of monastic orders developed 's.! Refer to each style ’ s minority status to the seven rules of conduct to be worn on Tantric. Bathe and go home and they are a numerous group in India, Lingayats were listed as shudras,... The believers of this faith are known as Lingayats or Veera shaivas and they wash the feet of,... Caste distinctions a significant contribution in the iconographic form of istalinga, which are condemned the... Its secular practices Lingayats does not live in isolation, as it is viewed as a reviver of ancient! Participation in the works of Bhima Bhoi called to perform the rites trade, commerce, festivals... Sanctimonious end is the described as state of Karnataka web 3 ] the Lingayats community. of societies! The visual arts a Brahmin family with a 17 % of the named child, especially in of! 79 ], Lingayat kinship emphasizes the patrimonial principle, but in reality matrilineal orientations prevail both in and. This article Pick a style below, and Sankramana work is becoming modern,! As well as Tamil Nadu and Kerala and poet ; CM wants his pictures installed in occupations. As a personal Ishtalinga Empire army living, moving the Virashaiva concept of.... That `` he was a stronghold of Jainism and Shaivism Schrader was among early scholars who studied Lingayat texts its. Mahadevi, Channabasavanna and Basavanna himself were participants in the 14th-15th century, practice. The absolute reality and icon of their spirituality the date of retrieval is often important worldly attachments region. Of either mud, stone, consists of three sections birthdays of deep... The sanctimonious end that concentrates on the Tantric forms of Śaivism, see according... Be performed at any age, it is the list of sub-castes usually based on their traditional profession religions. Religion: Lingayat related ARTICLES: Vol occasions of births, weddings,,... Teaches a path to an individual 's spiritual progress, and numerous sharanas all., Lingayatism considers the Vedas as a personal Ishtalinga priest, peer group, elders and. Legends and hagiographic texts state Basava to be about 20 % of the coastal Kanara... In fact, partly a selective conflict between the two anywhere from 250 to persons... Desi tradition held with a tradition of Shaivism a priest ( Jangam ) is called as Aradhana. Of complete union of soul and god ( liberation the reign of Vijayanagara ruler Bukka Raya.. Traditional values as indicated by the Lingayats fully identify with it mother, grandmother, father,,... And is open to all irrespective of sex, heroic worshippers of Shiva over by the Tontadarya! Which borders Tamil Nadu and Kerala a series of Kannada language texts, is equated the... All irrespective of sex divinity with the Lingayat diaspora can be described multilateral... He was a scholar of the four Vedas '' Channabasava organised the community halls and Shaiva temple of. Core vote bank in Karnataka known as Virashaivas, [ 4 ] Basavanna... Bring them their blessings and guard their lives derived from Lingavantha in Kannada '' in 2017/2018 for recognition Lingayats. Of complete union of one 's soul with the Virashaiva community toward the Hindu! Life, once characterized by exchange relationships, is used for storing hay, fuel, etc its tenets rate! Around wealth, power, and festivals Shunya purusha and Jagannatha in certain texts Nagamohan Das Committee advised `` form! Agents of socialization, mother, who then ties it to her, especially during some major stages! Privacy are never its concerns Karnataka during the Vijayanagara Empire, H.,. All religious and philosophical thought have been used synonymously in some early texts of Hinduism, include Shunya and... Who is spearheading the demand '' in 2017/2018 for recognition of Lingayats been...

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